HTML Source code for the 1.Ayana project
9 months ago by Nina in HTML
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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">HTML</h1>
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<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">".htm" and ".html" redirect here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/HTM_(disambiguation)" class="mw-redirect mw-disambig" title="HTM (disambiguation)">HTM</a>.</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable"><div style="display:inline;" class="plainlinks selfreference noprint">For the use of HTML on Wikipedia, see <a href="/wiki/Help:HTML_in_wikitext" title="Help:HTML in wikitext">Help:HTML in wikitext</a>.</div></div>
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<div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">Hypertext Markup Language</div>
<table class="infobox" style="width:22em"><caption style="font-size:130%; padding-bottom:0.15em;">HTML<br /><span style="font-size:85%;"><span class="nowrap">(Hypertext Markup Language)</span></span></caption><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/File:HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg" class="image"><img alt="HTML5 logo and wordmark.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg/120px-HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg.png" decoding="async" width="120" height="120" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg/180px-HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg/240px-HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></a><div>The official logo of the latest version, <a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;"><a href="/wiki/Filename_extension" title="Filename extension">Filename extension</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><div class="plainlist"><ul><li><code>.html</code></li><li><code>.htm</code></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;"><a href="/wiki/Media_type" title="Media type">Internet media&#160;type</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886049734">.mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}</style><div class="monospaced">
text/html</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;"><a href="/wiki/Type_code" class="mw-redirect" title="Type code">Type code</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">TEXT</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;">Developed&#160;by</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/WHATWG" title="WHATWG">WHATWG</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;">Initial release</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">1993<span class="noprint">&#59;&#32;27&#160;years ago</span><span style="display:none">&#160;(<span class="bday dtstart published updated">1993</span>)</span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;"><a href="/wiki/Software_release_life_cycle" title="Software release life cycle">Latest release</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">5.2<br />(27&#160;May 2019<span class="noprint">&#59;&#32;13&#160;months ago</span><span style="display:none">&#160;(<span class="bday dtstart published updated">2019-05-27</span>)</span>) </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;">Type of format</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Document_file_format" title="Document file format">Document file format</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;">Extended&#160;from</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Standard_Generalized_Markup_Language" title="Standard Generalized Markup Language">SGML</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;">Extended&#160;to</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;"><a href="/wiki/International_standard" title="International standard">Standards</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/">HTML Living Standard</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;"><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Open_format" title="Open format">Open format</a>?</span></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">Yes</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="line-height:1.2em; padding-right:0.65em;">Website</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><span class="url"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://whatwg.org/">whatwg<wbr />.org</a></span></td></tr></tbody></table>
<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f8f9fa;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%"><tbody><tr><th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em"><a class="mw-selflink selflink">HTML</a></th></tr><tr><td class="hlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Dynamic_HTML" title="Dynamic HTML">Dynamic HTML</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/HTML5_Audio" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML5 Audio">audio</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Canvas_element" title="Canvas element">canvas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HTML5_video" title="HTML5 video">video</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/XHTML_Basic" title="XHTML Basic">Basic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/XHTML_Mobile_Profile" title="XHTML Mobile Profile">Mobile Profile</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/C-HTML" class="mw-redirect" title="C-HTML">C-HTML</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HTML_element" title="HTML element">HTML element</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Span_and_div" title="Span and div">span and div</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HTML_attribute" title="HTML attribute">HTML attribute</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Framing_(World_Wide_Web)" class="mw-redirect" title="Framing (World Wide Web)">HTML frame</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HTML_editor" title="HTML editor">HTML editor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Character_encodings_in_HTML" title="Character encodings in HTML">Character encodings</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Unicode_and_HTML" title="Unicode and HTML">Unicode</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Language_code" title="Language code">Language code</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model">Document Object Model</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Browser_Object_Model" title="Browser Object Model">Browser Object Model</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Style_sheet_(web_development)" title="Style sheet (web development)">Style sheets</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Font_family_(HTML)" title="Font family (HTML)">Font family</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Web_colors" title="Web colors">Web colors</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HTML_scripting" title="HTML scripting">HTML scripting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/WebGL" title="WebGL">WebGL</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/WebCL" title="WebCL">WebCL</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/W3C_Markup_Validation_Service" title="W3C Markup Validation Service">Validator</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/WHATWG" title="WHATWG">WHATWG</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quirks_mode" title="Quirks mode">Quirks mode</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Web_storage" title="Web storage">Web storage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Browser_engine" title="Browser engine">Rendering engine</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
Comparisons</th></tr><tr><td class="hlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_document_markup_languages" class="mw-redirect" title="Comparison of document markup languages">Document markup languages</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_browser_engines_(HTML_support)" title="Comparison of browser engines (HTML support)">HTML support</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(XHTML)" title="Comparison of layout engines (XHTML)">XHTML</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(XHTML_1.1)" title="Comparison of layout engines (XHTML 1.1)">1.1</a></li></ul></li></ul></td>
</tr></tbody></table>
<p><b>Hypertext Markup Language</b> (<b>HTML</b>) is the standard <a href="/wiki/Markup_language" title="Markup language">markup language</a> for documents designed to be displayed in a <a href="/wiki/Web_browser" title="Web browser">web browser</a>. It can be assisted by technologies such as <a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">Cascading Style Sheets</a> (CSS) and <a href="/wiki/Scripting_language" title="Scripting language">scripting languages</a> such as <a href="/wiki/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Web_browser" title="Web browser">Web browsers</a> receive HTML documents from a <a href="/wiki/Web_server" title="Web server">web server</a> or from local storage and <a href="/wiki/Browser_engine" title="Browser engine">render</a> the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a <a href="/wiki/Web_page" title="Web page">web page</a> <a href="/wiki/Semantic_Web" title="Semantic Web">semantically</a> and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/HTML_element" title="HTML element">HTML elements</a> are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, <a href="/wiki/HTML_element#Images_and_objects" title="HTML element">images</a> and other objects such as <a href="/wiki/Fieldset" class="mw-redirect" title="Fieldset">interactive forms</a> may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML provides a means to create <a href="/wiki/Structured_document" title="Structured document">structured documents</a> by denoting structural <a href="/wiki/Semantics" title="Semantics">semantics</a> for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, <a href="/wiki/Hyperlink" title="Hyperlink">links</a>, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by <i>tags</i>, written using <a href="/wiki/Bracket#Angle_brackets" title="Bracket">angle brackets</a>. Tags such as <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">input</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span></code> directly introduce content into the page. Other tags such as <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> surround and provide information about document text and may include other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page.
</p><p>HTML can embed programs written in a <a href="/wiki/Scripting_language" title="Scripting language">scripting language</a> such as <a href="/wiki/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>, which affects the behavior and content of web pages. Inclusion of CSS defines the look and layout of content. The <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">World Wide Web Consortium</a> (W3C), former maintainer of the HTML and current maintainer of the CSS standards, has encouraged the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML since 1997.<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit">&#91;update&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-deprecated_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-deprecated-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>
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<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Development"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Development</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#HTML_versions_timeline"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">HTML versions timeline</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-4"><a href="#HTML_2"><span class="tocnumber">1.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">HTML 2</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-5"><a href="#HTML_3"><span class="tocnumber">1.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">HTML 3</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-6"><a href="#HTML_4"><span class="tocnumber">1.2.3</span> <span class="toctext">HTML 4</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a href="#HTML_5"><span class="tocnumber">1.2.4</span> <span class="toctext">HTML 5</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#HTML_draft_version_timeline"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">HTML draft version timeline</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-9"><a href="#XHTML_versions"><span class="tocnumber">1.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">XHTML versions</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Transition_of_HTML_Publication_to_WHATWG"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Transition of HTML Publication to WHATWG</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a href="#Markup"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Markup</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Elements"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Elements</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-13"><a href="#Element_examples"><span class="tocnumber">2.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Element examples</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1"><a href="#Heading_Level_2"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Heading Level 2</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2"><a href="#Heading_Level_3"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Heading Level 3</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3"><a href="#Heading_Level_4"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Heading Level 4</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-14"><a href="#Attributes"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Attributes</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Character_and_entity_references"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Character and entity references</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Data_types"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Data types</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Document_type_declaration"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Document type declaration</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#Semantic_HTML"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Semantic HTML</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#Delivery"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Delivery</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#HTTP"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">HTTP</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#HTML_e-mail"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">HTML e-mail</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Naming_conventions"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Naming conventions</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#HTML_Application"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">HTML Application</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-24"><a href="#HTML4_variations"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">HTML4 variations</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#SGML-based_versus_XML-based_HTML"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">SGML-based versus XML-based HTML</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Transitional_versus_strict"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Transitional versus strict</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Frameset_versus_transitional"><span class="tocnumber">6.3</span> <span class="toctext">Frameset versus transitional</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Summary_of_specification_versions"><span class="tocnumber">6.4</span> <span class="toctext">Summary of specification versions</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#WHATWG_HTML_versus_HTML5"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">WHATWG HTML versus HTML5</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#WYSIWYG_editors"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">WYSIWYG editors</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-32"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-33"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: History">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Development">Development</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Development">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Photograph of Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg/170px-Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="234" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg/255px-Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg/340px-Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1195" data-file-height="1648" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Tim_Berners-Lee_April_2009.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Tim Berners-Lee</a> in April 2009</div></div></div>
<p>In 1980, physicist <a href="/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Tim Berners-Lee</a>, a contractor at <a href="/wiki/CERN" title="CERN">CERN</a>, proposed and prototyped <a href="/wiki/ENQUIRE" title="ENQUIRE">ENQUIRE</a>, a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an <a href="/wiki/Internet" title="Internet">Internet</a>-based <a href="/wiki/Hypertext" title="Hypertext">hypertext</a> system.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> Berners-Lee specified HTML and wrote the browser and server software in late 1990. That year, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer <a href="/wiki/Robert_Cailliau" title="Robert Cailliau">Robert Cailliau</a> collaborated on a joint request for funding, but the project was not formally adopted by CERN. In his personal notes<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup> from 1990 he listed<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup> "some of the many areas in which hypertext is used" and put an encyclopedia first.
</p><p>The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/Tags.html">"HTML Tags"</a>, first mentioned on the Internet by Tim Berners-Lee in late 1991.<sup id="cite_ref-tagshtml_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-tagshtml-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> It describes 18 elements comprising the initial, relatively simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were strongly influenced by <a href="/wiki/SGMLguid" title="SGMLguid">SGMLguid</a>, an in-house <a href="/wiki/Standard_Generalized_Markup_Language" title="Standard Generalized Markup Language">Standard Generalized Markup Language</a> (SGML)-based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>HTML is a <a href="/wiki/Markup_language" title="Markup language">markup language</a> that <a href="/wiki/Web_browser" title="Web browser">web browsers</a> use to interpret and <a href="/wiki/Typesetting" title="Typesetting">compose</a> text, images, and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, and these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of <a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a>. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 <i>Techniques for using SGML</i>, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the <a href="/wiki/TYPSET_and_RUNOFF" title="TYPSET and RUNOFF">RUNOFF command</a> developed in the early 1960s for the <a href="/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System" title="Compatible Time-Sharing System">CTSS</a> (Compatible Time-Sharing System) operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements (nested annotated ranges with attributes) rather than merely print effects, with also the separation of structure and markup; HTML has been progressively moved in this direction with CSS.
</p><p>Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the <a href="/wiki/Internet_Engineering_Task_Force" title="Internet Engineering Task Force">Internet Engineering Task Force</a> (IETF) with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and <a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Dan Connolly</a>, which included an SGML <a href="/wiki/Document_type_definition" title="Document type definition">Document type definition</a> to define the grammar.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup> The draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the <a href="/wiki/Mosaic_(web_browser)" title="Mosaic (web browser)">NCSA Mosaic</a> browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Similarly, <a href="/wiki/Dave_Raggett" title="Dave Raggett">Dave Raggett</a>'s competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+ (Hypertext Markup Format)", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms.<sup id="cite_ref-html+_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html+-11">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests. Since 1996,<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit">&#91;update&#93;</a></sup> the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">World Wide Web Consortium</a> (W3C).<sup id="cite_ref-raggett_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-raggett-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> However, in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (<a href="/wiki/International_Organization_for_Standardization" title="International Organization for Standardization">ISO</a>/<a href="/wiki/International_Electrotechnical_Commission" title="International Electrotechnical Commission">IEC</a> 15445:2000). HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the <a href="/wiki/Web_Hypertext_Application_Technology_Working_Group" class="mw-redirect" title="Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group">Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group</a> (WHATWG), which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, and completed and standardized on 28 October 2014.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_versions_timeline">HTML versions timeline</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: HTML versions timeline">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_2">HTML 2</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: HTML 2">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<dl><dd><dl><dt>November 24, 1995</dt>
<dd>HTML 2.0 was published as <style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r951705291">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}</style><a href="/wiki/RFC_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="RFC (identifier)">RFC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1866">1866</a>. Supplemental <a href="/wiki/Request_for_Comments" title="Request for Comments">RFCs</a> added capabilities:
<ul><li>November 25, 1995: <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/RFC_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="RFC (identifier)">RFC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1867">1867</a> (form-based file upload)</li>
<li>May 1996: <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/RFC_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="RFC (identifier)">RFC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1942">1942</a> (tables)</li>
<li>August 1996: <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/RFC_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="RFC (identifier)">RFC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1980">1980</a> (client-side image maps)</li>
<li>January 1997: <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/RFC_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="RFC (identifier)">RFC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2070">2070</a> (<a href="/wiki/Internationalization_and_localization" title="Internationalization and localization">internationalization</a>)</li></ul></dd></dl></dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_3">HTML 3</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: HTML 3">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<dl><dd><dl><dt>January 14, 1997</dt>
<dd>HTML 3.2<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup> was published as a <a href="/wiki/W3C_Recommendation" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C Recommendation">W3C Recommendation</a>. It was the first version developed and standardized exclusively by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dd>Initially code-named "Wilbur",<sup id="cite_ref-engelfriet_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-engelfriet-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas entirely, reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of <a href="/wiki/Netscape" title="Netscape">Netscape</a>'s visual markup tags. Netscape's <a href="/wiki/Blink_element" title="Blink element">blink element</a> and <a href="/wiki/Microsoft" title="Microsoft">Microsoft</a>'s <a href="/wiki/Marquee_element" title="Marquee element">marquee element</a> were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies.<sup id="cite_ref-raggett_13-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-raggett-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> A markup for mathematical formulas similar to that in HTML was not standardized until 14 months later in <a href="/wiki/MathML" title="MathML">MathML</a>.</dd></dl></dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_4">HTML 4</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: HTML 4">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<dl><dd><dl><dt>December 18, 1997</dt>
<dd>HTML 4.0<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup> was published as a W3C Recommendation. It offers three variations:
<ul><li>Strict, in which deprecated elements are forbidden</li>
<li>Transitional, in which deprecated elements are allowed</li>
<li>Frameset, in which mostly only <a href="/wiki/Framing_(World_Wide_Web)" class="mw-redirect" title="Framing (World Wide Web)">frame</a> related elements are allowed.</li></ul></dd>
<dd>Initially code-named "Cougar",<sup id="cite_ref-engelfriet_17-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-engelfriet-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> HTML 4.0 adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes, but at the same time sought to phase out Netscape's visual markup features by marking them as <a href="/wiki/Deprecation" title="Deprecation">deprecated</a> in favor of style sheets. HTML 4 is an SGML application conforming to ISO 8879&#160;– SGML.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>April 24, 1998</dt>
<dd>HTML 4.0<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup> was reissued with minor edits without incrementing the version number.</dd>
<dt>December 24, 1999</dt>
<dd>HTML 4.01<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">&#91;21&#93;</a></sup> was published as a W3C Recommendation. It offers the same three variations as HTML 4.0 and its last <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/html4-updates/errata">errata</a> were published on May 12, 2001.</dd>
<dt>May 2000</dt>
<dd>ISO/IEC 15445:2000<sup id="cite_ref-iso-html_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-iso-html-22">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23">&#91;23&#93;</a></sup> ("<a href="/wiki/International_Organization_for_Standardization" title="International Organization for Standardization">ISO</a> HTML", based on HTML 4.01 Strict) was published as an ISO/IEC international standard. In the ISO this standard falls in the domain of the <a href="/wiki/ISO/IEC_JTC1/SC34" class="mw-redirect" title="ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34">ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34</a> (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 34&#160;– Document description and processing languages).<sup id="cite_ref-iso-html_22-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-iso-html-22">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dd>After HTML 4.01, there was no new version of HTML for many years as development of the parallel, XML-based language XHTML occupied the W3C's HTML Working Group through the early and mid-2000s.</dd></dl></dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_5">HTML 5</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: HTML 5">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a></div>
<dl><dd><dl><dt>October 28, 2014</dt>
<dd>HTML5<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup> was published as a W3C Recommendation.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">&#91;25&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>November 1, 2016</dt>
<dd>HTML 5.1<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">&#91;26&#93;</a></sup> was published as a W3C Recommendation.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>December 14, 2017</dt>
<dd>HTML 5.2<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup> was published as a W3C Recommendation.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">&#91;30&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup></dd></dl></dd></dl>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_draft_version_timeline">HTML draft version timeline</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: HTML draft version timeline">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<dl><dt>October 1991</dt>
<dd><i>HTML Tags</i>,<sup id="cite_ref-tagshtml_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-tagshtml-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup> an informal CERN document listing 18 HTML tags, was first mentioned in public.</dd>
<dt>June 1992</dt>
<dd>First informal draft of the HTML DTD,<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup> with seven<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">&#91;33&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34">&#91;34&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-html11_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html11-35">&#91;35&#93;</a></sup> subsequent revisions (July 15, August 6, August 18, November 17, November 19, November 20, November 22)</dd>
<dt>November 1992</dt>
<dd>HTML DTD 1.1 (the first with a version number, based on RCS revisions, which start with 1.1 rather than 1.0), an informal draft<sup id="cite_ref-html11_35-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html11-35">&#91;35&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>June 1993</dt>
<dd>Hypertext Markup Language<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">&#91;36&#93;</a></sup> was published by the <a href="/wiki/Internet_Engineering_Task_Force" title="Internet Engineering Task Force">IETF</a> IIIR Working Group as an Internet Draft (a rough proposal for a standard). It was replaced by a second version<sup id="cite_ref-ietfiiir_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ietfiiir-37">&#91;37&#93;</a></sup> one month later.</dd>
<dt>November 1993</dt>
<dd><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/HTMLPlus/htmlplus_1.html">HTML+</a> was published by the IETF as an Internet Draft and was a competing proposal to the Hypertext Markup Language draft. It expired in July 1994.<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38">&#91;38&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>November 1994</dt>
<dd>First draft (revision 00) of HTML 2.0 published by IETF itself<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39">&#91;39&#93;</a></sup> (called as "HTML 2.0" from revision 02<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup>), that finally led to publication of <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/RFC_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="RFC (identifier)">RFC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1866">1866</a> in November 1995.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41">&#91;41&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>April 1995 (authored March 1995)</dt>
<dd>HTML 3.0<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">&#91;42&#93;</a></sup> was proposed as a standard to the IETF, but the proposal expired five months later (28 September 1995)<sup id="cite_ref-html30cover_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html30cover-43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup> without further action. It included many of the capabilities that were in Raggett's HTML+ proposal, such as support for tables, text flow around figures and the display of complex mathematical formulas.<sup id="cite_ref-html30cover_43-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-html30cover-43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dd>W3C began development of its own <a href="/wiki/Arena_(web_browser)" title="Arena (web browser)">Arena browser</a> as a <a href="/wiki/Test_bed" class="mw-redirect" title="Test bed">test bed</a> for HTML 3 and Cascading Style Sheets,<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">&#91;44&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">&#91;45&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">&#91;46&#93;</a></sup> but HTML 3.0 did not succeed for several reasons. The draft was considered very large at 150 pages and the pace of browser development, as well as the number of interested parties, had outstripped the resources of the IETF.<sup id="cite_ref-raggett_13-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-raggett-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> Browser vendors, including Microsoft and Netscape at the time, chose to implement different subsets of HTML 3's draft features as well as to introduce their own extensions to it.<sup id="cite_ref-raggett_13-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-raggett-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> (see <a href="/wiki/Browser_wars" title="Browser wars">Browser wars</a>). These included extensions to control stylistic aspects of documents, contrary to the "belief [of the academic engineering community] that such things as text color, background texture, font size and font face were definitely outside the scope of a language when their only intent was to specify how a document would be organized."<sup id="cite_ref-raggett_13-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-raggett-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> Dave Raggett, who has been a W3C Fellow for many years, has commented for example: "To a certain extent, Microsoft built its business on the Web by extending HTML features."<sup id="cite_ref-raggett_13-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-raggett-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup></dd></dl>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg" class="image"><img alt="Official HTML5 logo" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg/170px-HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg.png" decoding="async" width="170" height="170" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg/255px-HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg/340px-HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:HTML5_logo_and_wordmark.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Logo of HTML5</div></div></div>
<dl><dt>January 2008</dt>
<dd><a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> was published as a <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web_Consortium#Recommendations_and_Certifications" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Working Draft</a> by the W3C.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">&#91;47&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dd>Although its syntax closely resembles that of <a href="/wiki/SGML" class="mw-redirect" title="SGML">SGML</a>, <a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> has abandoned any attempt to be an SGML application and has explicitly defined its own "html" serialization, in addition to an alternative XML-based XHTML5 serialization.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>2011&#160;HTML5 – Last Call</dt>
<dd>On 14 February 2011, the W3C extended the charter of its HTML Working Group with clear milestones for HTML5. In May 2011, the working group advanced HTML5 to "Last Call", an invitation to communities inside and outside W3C to confirm the technical soundness of the specification. The W3C developed a comprehensive test suite to achieve broad interoperability for the full specification by 2014, which was the target date for recommendation.<sup id="cite_ref-w3c2014_49-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-w3c2014-49">&#91;49&#93;</a></sup> In January 2011, the WHATWG renamed its "HTML5" living standard to "HTML". The W3C nevertheless continues its project to release HTML5.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">&#91;50&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>2012&#160;HTML5 – Candidate Recommendation</dt>
<dd>In July 2012, WHATWG and <a href="/wiki/W3C" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C">W3C</a> decided on a degree of separation. W3C will continue the HTML5 specification work, focusing on a single definitive standard, which is considered as a "snapshot" by WHATWG. The WHATWG organization will continue its work with HTML5 as a "Living Standard". The concept of a living standard is that it is never complete and is always being updated and improved. New features can be added but functionality will not be removed.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51">&#91;51&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dd>In December 2012, W3C designated HTML5 as a Candidate Recommendation.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup> The criterion for advancement to <a href="/wiki/W3C_recommendation#W3C_Recommendation_(REC)" class="mw-redirect" title="W3C recommendation">W3C Recommendation</a> is "two 100% complete and fully interoperable implementations".<sup id="cite_ref-W3Crec_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3Crec-53">&#91;53&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>2014&#160;HTML5 – Proposed Recommendation and Recommendation</dt>
<dd>In September 2014, W3C moved HTML5 to Proposed Recommendation.<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">&#91;54&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dd>On 28 October 2014, HTML5 was released as a stable W3C Recommendation,<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">&#91;55&#93;</a></sup> meaning the specification process is complete.<sup id="cite_ref-finalars_56-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-finalars-56">&#91;56&#93;</a></sup></dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="XHTML_versions">XHTML versions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: XHTML versions">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a></div>
<p>XHTML is a separate language that began as a reformulation of HTML 4.01 using <a href="/wiki/XML" title="XML">XML</a> 1.0. It is no longer being developed as a separate standard.
</p>
<ul><li>XHTML 1.0 was published as a W3C Recommendation on January 26, 2000,<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">&#91;57&#93;</a></sup> and was later revised and republished on August 1, 2002. It offers the same three variations as HTML 4.0 and 4.01, reformulated in XML, with minor restrictions.</li>
<li>XHTML 1.1<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">&#91;58&#93;</a></sup> was published as a W3C Recommendation on May 31, 2001. It is based on XHTML 1.0 Strict, but includes minor changes, can be customized, and is reformulated using modules in the W3C recommendation "Modularization of XHTML", which was published on April 10, 2001.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">&#91;59&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>XHTML 2.0 was a working draft, work on it was abandoned in 2009 in favor of work on <a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> and <a href="/wiki/XHTML#XHTML5" title="XHTML">XHTML5</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">&#91;60&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61">&#91;61&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">&#91;62&#93;</a></sup> XHTML 2.0 was incompatible with XHTML 1.x and, therefore, would be more accurately characterized as an XHTML-inspired new language than an update to XHTML 1.x.</li>
<li>An XHTML syntax, known as "XHTML5.1", is being defined alongside <a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> in the HTML5 draft.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup></li></ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Transition_of_HTML_Publication_to_WHATWG">Transition of HTML Publication to WHATWG</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Transition of HTML Publication to WHATWG">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/HTML5#W3C_and_WHATWG_conflict" title="HTML5">HTML5 §&#160;W3C and WHATWG conflict</a></div>
<p>On 28 May 2019, the W3C announced that WHATWG would be the sole publisher of the HTML and DOM standards.<sup id="cite_ref-W3C_transfer_blog_64-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C_transfer_blog-64">&#91;64&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-W3C_transfer_HTML_65-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C_transfer_HTML-65">&#91;65&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-W3C_transfer_memo_66-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C_transfer_memo-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-W3C_transfer_ZDNet_67-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C_transfer_ZDNet-67">&#91;67&#93;</a></sup> The W3C and WHATWG had been publishing competing standards since 2012. While the W3C standard was identical to the WHATWG in 2007 the standards have since progressively diverged due to different design decisions.<sup id="cite_ref-W3C_forks_68-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-W3C_forks-68">&#91;68&#93;</a></sup> The WHATWG "Living Standard" had been the de facto web standard for some time.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">&#91;69&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Markup">Markup</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Markup">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>HTML markup consists of several key components, including those called <i>tags</i> (and their <i>attributes</i>), character-based <i>data types</i>, <i>character references</i> and <i>entity references</i>. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, although some represent <i>empty elements</i> and so are unpaired, for example <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>. The first tag in such a pair is the <i>start tag</i>, and the second is the <i>end tag</i> (they are also called <i>opening tags</i> and <i>closing tags</i>).
</p><p>Another important component is the HTML <i><a href="/wiki/Document_type_declaration" title="Document type declaration">document type declaration</a></i>, which triggers <a href="/wiki/Standards_mode" class="mw-redirect" title="Standards mode">standards mode</a> rendering.
</p><p>The following is an example of the classic <a href="/wiki/%22Hello,_World!%22_program" title="&quot;Hello, World!&quot; program">"Hello, World!" program</a>:
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="cp">&lt;!DOCTYPE html&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">html</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>This is a title<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">div</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Hello world!<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">div</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">html</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>The text between <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">html</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">html</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> describes the web page, and the text between <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> is the visible page content. The markup text <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>This is a title<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> defines the browser page title, and the tag <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">div</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> defines a division of the page used for easy styling.
</p><p>The Document Type Declaration <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="cp">&lt;!DOCTYPE html&gt;</span></code> is for HTML5. If a declaration is not included, various browsers will revert to "<a href="/wiki/Quirks_mode" title="Quirks mode">quirks mode</a>" for rendering.<sup id="cite_ref-hsivonen_70-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-hsivonen-70">&#91;70&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Elements">Elements</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Elements">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/HTML_element" title="HTML element">HTML element</a></div>
<p>HTML documents imply a structure of nested <a href="/wiki/HTML_element" title="HTML element">HTML elements</a>. These are indicated in the document by HTML <i>tags</i>, enclosed in angle brackets thus: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71">&#91;71&#93;</a></sup><sup class="noprint Inline-Template noprint noexcerpt Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:NOTRS" class="mw-redirect" title="Wikipedia:NOTRS"><span title="This claim needs references to better sources. (February 2019)">better&#160;source&#160;needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>In the simple, general case, the extent of an element is indicated by a pair of tags: a "start tag" <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and "end tag" <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>. The text content of the element, if any, is placed between these tags.
</p><p>Tags may also enclose further tag markup between the start and end, including a mixture of tags and text. This indicates further (nested) elements, as children of the parent element.
</p><p>The start tag may also include <i>attributes</i> within the tag. These indicate other information, such as identifiers for sections within the document, identifiers used to bind style information to the presentation of the document, and for some tags such as the <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> used to embed images, the reference to the image resource in the format like this: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span> <span class="na">src</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;example.com/example.jpg&quot;</span></code>
</p><p>Some elements, such as the <a href="/wiki/Line_breaking_character" class="mw-redirect" title="Line breaking character">line break</a> <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, or <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span></code> do not permit <i>any</i> embedded content, either text or further tags. These require only a single empty tag (akin to a start tag) and do not use an end tag.
</p><p>Many tags, particularly the closing end tag for the very commonly used paragraph element <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, are optional. An HTML browser or other agent can infer the closure for the end of an element from the context and the structural rules defined by the HTML standard. These rules are complex and not widely understood by most HTML coders.
</p><p>The general form of an HTML element is therefore: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">tag</span> <span class="na">attribute1</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value1&quot;</span> <span class="na">attribute2</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value2&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>&#39;&#39;content&#39;&#39;<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">tag</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>. Some HTML elements are defined as <i>empty elements</i> and take the form <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">tag</span> <span class="na">attribute1</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value1&quot;</span> <span class="na">attribute2</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value2&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>. Empty elements may enclose no content, for instance, the <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> tag or the inline <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> tag.
The name of an HTML element is the name used in the tags.
Note that the end tag's name is preceded by a slash character, <code>&#47;</code>, and that in empty elements the end tag is neither required nor allowed.
If attributes are not mentioned, default values are used in each case.
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Element_examples">Element examples</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Element examples">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/HTML_element" title="HTML element">HTML element</a></div>
<p>Header of the HTML document: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>...<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>. The title is included in the head, for example:
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>The Title<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>Headings: HTML headings are defined with the <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> to <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h6</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> tags with H1 being the highest (or most important) level and H6 the least:
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Heading level 1<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h2</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Heading level 2<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h2</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h3</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Heading level 3<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h3</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h4</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Heading level 4<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h4</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h5</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Heading level 5<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h5</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h6</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Heading level 6<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h6</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>The Effects are:
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Heading_Level_2"> Heading Level 2 </span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Heading_Level_3"> Heading Level 3 </span></h3>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Heading_Level_4"> Heading Level 4 </span></h4><p>
Paragraphs:</p><div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Paragraph 1<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Paragraph 2<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>Line breaks: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>. The difference between <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> is that <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> <a href="/wiki/Line_breaking_character" class="mw-redirect" title="Line breaking character">breaks a line</a> without altering the semantic structure of the page, whereas <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> sections the page into <a href="/wiki/Paragraph" title="Paragraph">paragraphs</a>. The element <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> is an <i>empty element</i> in that, although it may have attributes, it can take no content and it may not have an end tag.
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>This <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> is a paragraph <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> with <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span> line breaks<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>This is a link in HTML. To create a link the <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> tag is used. The <code>href</code> attribute holds the URL address of the link.
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;https://www.wikipedia.org/&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>A link to Wikipedia!<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>Inputs:
</p><p>
There are many possible ways a user can give input/s like:</p><div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="lineno">1 </span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">input</span> <span class="na">type</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;text&quot;</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span> <span class="c">&lt;!-- This is for text input --&gt;</span>
<span class="lineno">2 </span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">input</span> <span class="na">type</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;file&quot;</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span> <span class="c">&lt;!-- This is for uploading files --&gt;</span>
<span class="lineno">3 </span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">input</span> <span class="na">type</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;checkbox&quot;</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span> <span class="c">&lt;!-- This is for checkboxes --&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p><span id="Comments"></span><span id="comments"></span>Comments:
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="c">&lt;!-- This is a comment --&gt;</span>
</pre></div><p> Comments can help in the understanding of the markup and do not display in the webpage.
</p><p>There are several types of markup elements used in HTML:
</p>
<dl><dt>Structural markup indicates the purpose of text</dt>
<dd>For example, <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h2</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Golf<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h2</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> establishes "Golf" as a second-level <a href="/wiki/HTML_element#Basic_text" title="HTML element">heading</a>. Structural markup does not denote any specific rendering, but most web browsers have default styles for element formatting. Content may be further styled using <a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">Cascading Style Sheets</a> (CSS).<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">&#91;72&#93;</a></sup></dd>
<dt>Presentational markup indicates the appearance of the text, regardless of its purpose</dt>
<dd>For example, <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">b</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>boldface<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">b</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> indicates that visual output devices should render "boldface" in bold text, but gives little indication what devices that are unable to do this (such as aural devices that read the text aloud) should do. In the case of both <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">b</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>bold<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">b</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">i</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>italic<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">i</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, there are other elements that may have equivalent visual renderings but that are more semantic in nature, such as <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">strong</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>strong text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">strong</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">em</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>emphasized text<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">em</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> respectively. It is easier to see how an aural user agent should interpret the latter two elements. However, they are not equivalent to their presentational counterparts: it would be undesirable for a screen-reader to emphasize the name of a book, for instance, but on a screen such a name would be italicized. Most presentational markup elements have become <a href="/wiki/Deprecation" title="Deprecation">deprecated</a> under the HTML 4.0 specification in favor of using <a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a> for styling.</dd>
<dt>Hypertext markup makes parts of a document into links to other documents</dt>
<dd>An anchor element creates a <a href="/wiki/Hyperlink" title="Hyperlink">hyperlink</a> in the document and its <code>href</code> attribute sets the link's target <a href="/wiki/Uniform_Resource_Locator" class="mw-redirect" title="Uniform Resource Locator">URL</a>. For example, the HTML markup <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;https://www.google.com/&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Wikipedia<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, will render the word "<span class="plainlinks"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.google.com/">Wikipedia</a></span>" as a hyperlink. To render an image as a hyperlink, an <code>img</code> element is inserted as content into the <code>a</code> element. Like <code>br</code>, <code>img</code> is an empty element with attributes but no content or closing tag. <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">a</span> <span class="na">href</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;https://example.org&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;&lt;</span><span class="nt">img</span> <span class="na">src</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;image.gif&quot;</span> <span class="na">alt</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;descriptive text&quot;</span> <span class="na">width</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;50&quot;</span> <span class="na">height</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;50&quot;</span> <span class="na">border</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;0&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;&lt;/</span><span class="nt">a</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>.</dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Attributes">Attributes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Attributes">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/HTML_attribute" title="HTML attribute">HTML attribute</a></div>
<p>Most of the attributes of an element are <a href="/wiki/Attribute-value_pair" class="mw-redirect" title="Attribute-value pair">name-value pairs</a>, separated by <code>&#61;</code> and written within the start tag of an element after the element's name. The value may be enclosed in single or double quotes, although values consisting of certain characters can be left unquoted in HTML (but not XHTML).<sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73">&#91;73&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">&#91;74&#93;</a></sup> Leaving attribute values unquoted is considered unsafe.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75">&#91;75&#93;</a></sup> In contrast with name-value pair attributes, there are some attributes that affect the element simply by their presence in the start tag of the element,<sup id="cite_ref-tagshtml_6-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-tagshtml-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup> like the <code>ismap</code> attribute for the <code>img</code> element.<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">&#91;76&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>There are several common attributes that may appear in many elements&#160;:
</p>
<ul><li>The <code>id</code> attribute provides a document-wide unique identifier for an element. This is used to identify the element so that stylesheets can alter its presentational properties, and scripts may alter, animate or delete its contents or presentation. Appended to the URL of the page, it provides a globally unique identifier for the element, typically a sub-section of the page. For example, the ID "Attributes" in <code>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTML#Attributes</code>.</li>
<li>The <code>class</code> attribute provides a way of classifying similar elements. This can be used for <a href="/wiki/Semantics" title="Semantics">semantic</a> or presentation purposes. For example, an HTML document might semantically use the designation <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">class</span><span class="err">=&quot;</span><span class="na">notation</span><span class="err">&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> to indicate that all elements with this class value are subordinate to the main text of the document. In presentation, such elements might be gathered together and presented as footnotes on a page instead of appearing in the place where they occur in the HTML source. Class attributes are used semantically in <a href="/wiki/Microformat" title="Microformat">microformats</a>. Multiple class values may be specified; for example <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">class</span><span class="err">=&quot;</span><span class="na">notation</span> <span class="na">important</span><span class="err">&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> puts the element into both the <code>notation</code> and the <code>important</code> classes.</li>
<li>An author may use the <code>style</code> attribute to assign presentational properties to a particular element. It is considered better practice to use an element's <code>id</code> or <code>class</code> attributes to select the element from within a <a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">stylesheet</a>, though sometimes this can be too cumbersome for a simple, specific, or ad hoc styling.</li>
<li>The <code>title</code> attribute is used to attach subtextual explanation to an element. In most <a href="/wiki/Web_browser" title="Web browser">browsers</a> this attribute is displayed as a <a href="/wiki/Tooltip" title="Tooltip">tooltip</a>.</li>
<li>The <code>lang</code> attribute identifies the natural language of the element's contents, which may be different from that of the rest of the document. For example, in an English-language document: <div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>Oh well, <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">span</span> <span class="na">lang</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;fr&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>c&#39;est la vie<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">span</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>, as they say in France.<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">p</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div></li></ul>
<p>The abbreviation element, <code>abbr</code>, can be used to demonstrate some of these attributes:
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">abbr</span> <span class="na">id</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;anId&quot;</span> <span class="na">class</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;jargon&quot;</span> <span class="na">style</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;color:purple;&quot;</span> <span class="na">title</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;Hypertext Markup Language&quot;</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>HTML<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">abbr</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>This example displays as <abbr id="anId" class="jargon" style="color:purple;" title="Hypertext Markup Language">HTML</abbr>; in most browsers, pointing the cursor at the abbreviation should display the title text "Hypertext Markup Language."
</p><p>Most elements take the language-related attribute <code>dir</code> to specify text direction, such as with "rtl" for right-to-left text in, for example, <a href="/wiki/Arabic_language" class="mw-redirect" title="Arabic language">Arabic</a>, <a href="/wiki/Persian_language" title="Persian language">Persian</a> or <a href="/wiki/Hebrew_language" title="Hebrew language">Hebrew</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Character_and_entity_references">Character and entity references</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Character and entity references">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/List_of_XML_and_HTML_character_entity_references" title="List of XML and HTML character entity references">List of XML and HTML character entity references</a> and <a href="/wiki/Unicode_and_HTML" title="Unicode and HTML">Unicode and HTML</a></div>
<p>As of version 4.0, HTML defines a set of 252 <a href="/wiki/Character_entity_reference" class="mw-redirect" title="Character entity reference">character entity references</a> and a set of 1,114,050 <a href="/wiki/Numeric_character_reference" title="Numeric character reference">numeric character references</a>, both of which allow individual characters to be written via simple markup, rather than literally. A literal character and its markup counterpart are considered equivalent and are rendered identically.
</p><p>The ability to "escape" characters in this way allows for the characters <code>&lt;</code> and <code>&amp;</code> (when written as <code>&amp;lt;</code> and <code>&amp;amp;</code>, respectively) to be interpreted as character data, rather than markup. For example, a literal <code>&lt;</code> normally indicates the start of a tag, and <code>&amp;</code> normally indicates the start of a character entity reference or numeric character reference; writing it as <code>&amp;amp;</code> or <code>&amp;#x26;</code> or <code>&amp;#38;</code> allows <code>&amp;</code> to be included in the content of an element or in the value of an attribute. The double-quote character (<code>"</code>), when not used to quote an attribute value, must also be escaped as <code>&amp;quot;</code> or <code>&amp;#x22;</code> or <code>&amp;#34;</code> when it appears within the attribute value itself. Equivalently, the single-quote character (<code>'</code>), when not used to quote an attribute value, must also be escaped as <code>&amp;#x27;</code> or <code>&amp;#39;</code> (or as <code>&amp;apos;</code> in HTML5 or XHTML documents<sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-aposhtml_79-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-aposhtml-79">&#91;79&#93;</a></sup>) when it appears within the attribute value itself. If document authors overlook the need to escape such characters, some browsers can be very forgiving and try to use context to guess their intent. The result is still invalid markup, which makes the document less accessible to other browsers and to other <a href="/wiki/User_agent" title="User agent">user agents</a> that may try to parse the document for <a href="/wiki/Web_crawler" title="Web crawler">search and indexing</a> purposes for example.
</p><p>Escaping also allows for characters that are not easily typed, or that are not available in the document's <a href="/wiki/Character_encoding" title="Character encoding">character encoding</a>, to be represented within element and attribute content. For example, the acute-accented <code>e</code> (<code>é</code>), a character typically found only on Western European and South American keyboards, can be written in any HTML document as the entity reference <code>&amp;eacute;</code> or as the numeric references <code>&amp;#xE9;</code> or <code>&amp;#233;</code>, using characters that are available on all keyboards and are supported in all character encodings. <a href="/wiki/Unicode" title="Unicode">Unicode</a> character encodings such as <a href="/wiki/UTF-8" title="UTF-8">UTF-8</a> are compatible with all modern browsers and allow direct access to almost all the characters of the world's writing systems.<sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80">&#91;80&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<table class="wikitable">
<caption>A List of HTML Escape Sequences
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th>Escape Sequence
</th>
<th>Escape Number
</th>
<th>Result
</th>
<th>Description
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;amp;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#x26;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;</code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ampersand" title="Ampersand">Ampersand</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;lt;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#60;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&lt;</code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Less-than_sign" title="Less-than sign">Less Than</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;gt;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#x3e;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&gt;</code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Greater-than_sign" title="Greater-than sign">Greater Than</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;qout;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#x22;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&quot;</code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Double_quote" class="mw-redirect" title="Double quote">Double Quote</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;apos;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#39;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&#39;</code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Single_quote" class="mw-redirect" title="Single quote">Single Quote</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;nbsp;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#160;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr"></code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Non-breaking_space" title="Non-breaking space">Non-Breaking Space</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;copy;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#169;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">©</code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Copyright_symbol" title="Copyright symbol">Copyright</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;reg;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#174;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">®</code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Registered_trademark_symbol" title="Registered trademark symbol">Registered Trademark</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;trade;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr">&amp;#8482;</code>
</td>
<td><code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-text" id="" style="" dir="ltr"></code>
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Trademark_symbol" title="Trademark symbol">Trademark</a>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Data_types">Data types</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Data types">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>HTML defines several <a href="/wiki/Data_type" title="Data type">data types</a> for element content, such as script data and stylesheet data, and a plethora of types for attribute values, including IDs, names, URIs, numbers, units of length, languages, media descriptors, colors, character encodings, dates and times, and so on. All of these data types are specializations of character data.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Document_type_declaration">Document type declaration</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Document type declaration">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>HTML documents are required to start with a <a href="/wiki/Document_Type_Declaration" class="mw-redirect" title="Document Type Declaration">Document Type Declaration</a> (informally, a "doctype"). In browsers, the doctype helps to define the rendering mode—particularly whether to use <a href="/wiki/Quirks_mode" title="Quirks mode">quirks mode</a>.
</p><p>The original purpose of the doctype was to enable parsing and validation of HTML documents by SGML tools based on the <a href="/wiki/Document_Type_Definition" class="mw-redirect" title="Document Type Definition">Document Type Definition</a> (DTD). The DTD to which the DOCTYPE refers contains a machine-readable grammar specifying the permitted and prohibited content for a document conforming to such a DTD. Browsers, on the other hand, do not implement HTML as an application of SGML and by consequence do not read the DTD.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/HTML5" title="HTML5">HTML5</a> does not define a DTD; therefore, in HTML5 the doctype declaration is simpler and shorter:<sup id="cite_ref-81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81">&#91;81&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="cp">&lt;!DOCTYPE html&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>An example of an HTML 4 doctype
</p>
<div class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html mw-content-ltr" dir="ltr"><pre><span></span><span class="cp">&lt;!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN&quot; &quot;https://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd&quot;&gt;</span>
</pre></div>
<p>This declaration references the DTD for the "strict" version of HTML 4.01. SGML-based validators read the DTD in order to properly parse the document and to perform validation. In modern browsers, a valid doctype activates standards mode as opposed to <a href="/wiki/Quirks_mode" title="Quirks mode">quirks mode</a>.
</p><p>In addition, HTML 4.01 provides Transitional and Frameset DTDs, <a href="#Transitional_versus_strict">as explained below</a>. Transitional type is the most inclusive, incorporating current tags as well as older or "deprecated" tags, with the Strict DTD excluding deprecated tags. Frameset has all tags necessary to make frames on a page along with the tags included in transitional type.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (March 2016)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Semantic_HTML">Semantic HTML</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: Semantic HTML">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Semantic_HTML" title="Semantic HTML">Semantic HTML</a></div>
<p>Semantic HTML is a way of writing HTML that emphasizes the meaning of the encoded information over its presentation (look). HTML has included semantic markup from its inception,<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82">&#91;82&#93;</a></sup> but has also included presentational markup, such as <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">font</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">i</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> and <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">center</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> tags. There are also the semantically neutral <a href="/wiki/Span_and_div" title="Span and div">span and div</a> tags. Since the late 1990s, when <a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">Cascading Style Sheets</a> were beginning to work in most browsers, web authors have been encouraged to avoid the use of presentational HTML markup with a view to the <a href="/wiki/Separation_of_presentation_and_content" class="mw-redirect" title="Separation of presentation and content">separation of presentation and content</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In a 2001 discussion of the <a href="/wiki/Semantic_Web" title="Semantic Web">Semantic Web</a>, <a href="/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Tim Berners-Lee</a> and others gave examples of ways in which intelligent software "agents" may one day automatically crawl the web and find, filter and correlate previously unrelated, published facts for the benefit of human users.<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84">&#91;84&#93;</a></sup> Such agents are not commonplace even now, but some of the ideas of <a href="/wiki/Web_2.0" title="Web 2.0">Web 2.0</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid)" title="Mashup (web application hybrid)">mashups</a> and <a href="/wiki/Price_comparison_service" class="mw-redirect" title="Price comparison service">price comparison websites</a> may be coming close. The main difference between these web application hybrids and Berners-Lee's semantic agents lies in the fact that the current <a href="/wiki/Feed_aggregator" class="mw-redirect" title="Feed aggregator">aggregation</a> and hybridization of information is usually designed in by <a href="/wiki/Web_developer" title="Web developer">web developers</a>, who already know the web locations and the <a href="/wiki/Application_programming_interface" title="Application programming interface">API semantics</a> of the specific data they wish to mash, compare and combine.
</p><p>An important type of web agent that does crawl and read web pages automatically, without prior knowledge of what it might find, is the <a href="/wiki/Web_crawler" title="Web crawler">web crawler</a> or search-engine spider. These software agents are dependent on the semantic clarity of web pages they find as they use various techniques and <a href="/wiki/Algorithm" title="Algorithm">algorithms</a> to read and index millions of web pages a day and provide web users with <a href="/wiki/Web_search_engine" title="Web search engine">search facilities</a> without which the World Wide Web's usefulness would be greatly reduced.
</p><p>In order for search-engine spiders to be able to rate the significance of pieces of text they find in HTML documents, and also for those creating mashups and other hybrids as well as for more automated agents as they are developed, the semantic structures that exist in HTML need to be widely and uniformly applied to bring out the meaning of published text.<sup id="cite_ref-Semantic_Web_Revisted_85-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Semantic_Web_Revisted-85">&#91;85&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Presentational markup tags are <a href="/wiki/Deprecation" title="Deprecation">deprecated</a> in current HTML and <a href="/wiki/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> recommendations. The majority of presentational features from previous versions of HTML are no longer allowed as they lead to poorer accessibility, higher cost of site maintenance, and larger document sizes.<sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86">&#91;86&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Good semantic HTML also improves the <a href="/wiki/Accessibility" title="Accessibility">accessibility</a> of web documents (see also <a href="/wiki/Web_Content_Accessibility_Guidelines" title="Web Content Accessibility Guidelines">Web Content Accessibility Guidelines</a>). For example, when a screen reader or audio browser can correctly ascertain the structure of a document, it will not waste the visually impaired user's time by reading out repeated or irrelevant information when it has been marked up correctly.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Delivery">Delivery</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Delivery">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>HTML documents can be delivered by the same means as any other computer file. However, they are most often delivered either by <a href="/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol" title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">HTTP</a> from a <a href="/wiki/Web_server" title="Web server">web server</a> or by <a href="/wiki/Email" title="Email">email</a>.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="HTTP">HTTP</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: HTTP">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol" title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">Hypertext Transfer Protocol</a></div>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web" title="World Wide Web">World Wide Web</a> is composed primarily of HTML documents transmitted from web servers to web browsers using the <a href="/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol" title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol">Hypertext Transfer Protocol</a> (HTTP). However, HTTP is used to serve images, sound, and other content, in addition to HTML. To allow the web browser to know how to handle each document it receives, other information is transmitted along with the document. This <a href="/wiki/Meta_data" class="mw-redirect" title="Meta data">meta data</a> usually includes the <a href="/wiki/MIME_type" class="mw-redirect" title="MIME type">MIME type</a> (e.g., <kbd>text/html</kbd> or <kbd>application/xhtml+xml</kbd>) and the character encoding (see <a href="/wiki/Character_encoding_in_HTML" class="mw-redirect" title="Character encoding in HTML">Character encoding in HTML</a>).
</p><p>In modern browsers, the MIME type that is sent with the HTML document may affect how the document is initially interpreted. A document sent with the XHTML MIME type is expected to be <a href="/wiki/XML#Well-formed_documents" title="XML">well-formed</a> XML; syntax errors may cause the browser to fail to render it. The same document sent with the HTML MIME type might be displayed successfully, since some browsers are more lenient with HTML.
</p><p>The W3C recommendations state that XHTML 1.0 documents that follow guidelines set forth in the recommendation's Appendix C may be labeled with either MIME Type.<sup id="cite_ref-87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87">&#91;87&#93;</a></sup> XHTML 1.1 also states that XHTML 1.1 documents should<sup id="cite_ref-88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88">&#91;88&#93;</a></sup> be labeled with either MIME type.<sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89">&#91;89&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_e-mail">HTML e-mail</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: HTML e-mail">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/HTML_email" title="HTML email">HTML email</a></div>
<p>Most graphical email clients allow the use of a subset of HTML (often ill-defined) to provide formatting and <a href="/wiki/Semantic_web" class="mw-redirect" title="Semantic web">semantic</a> markup not available with <a href="/wiki/Plain_text" title="Plain text">plain text</a>. This may include typographic information like coloured headings, emphasized and quoted text, inline images and diagrams. Many such clients include both a <a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">GUI</a> editor for composing HTML e-mail messages and a rendering engine for displaying them. Use of HTML in e-mail is criticized by some because of compatibility issues, because it can help disguise <a href="/wiki/Phishing" title="Phishing">phishing</a> attacks, because of accessibility issues for blind or visually impaired people, because it can confuse <a href="/wiki/Email_spam" title="Email spam">spam</a> filters and because the message size is larger than plain text.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Naming_conventions">Naming conventions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section: Naming conventions">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The most common <a href="/wiki/Filename_extension" title="Filename extension">filename extension</a> for <a href="/wiki/Computer_file" title="Computer file">files</a> containing HTML is <kbd>.html</kbd>. A common abbreviation of this is <kbd>.htm</kbd>, which originated because some early operating systems and file systems, such as <a href="/wiki/DOS" title="DOS">DOS</a> and the limitations imposed by <a href="/wiki/File_Allocation_Table" title="File Allocation Table">FAT</a> data structure, limited file extensions to <a href="/wiki/8.3_filename" title="8.3 filename">three letters</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90">&#91;90&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML_Application">HTML Application</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: HTML Application">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/HTML_Application" title="HTML Application">HTML Application</a></div>
<p>An HTML Application (HTA; file extension ".hta") is a <a href="/wiki/Microsoft_Windows" title="Microsoft Windows">Microsoft Windows</a> application that uses HTML and Dynamic HTML in a <a href="/wiki/Web_browser" title="Web browser">browser</a> to provide the application's graphical interface. A regular HTML file is confined to the security model of the <a href="/wiki/Browser_security" title="Browser security">web browser's security</a>, communicating only to web servers and manipulating only web page objects and <a href="/wiki/HTTP_cookie" title="HTTP cookie">site cookies</a>. An HTA runs as a fully trusted application and therefore has more privileges, like creation/editing/removal of files and <a href="/wiki/Windows_Registry" title="Windows Registry">Windows Registry</a> entries. Because they operate outside the browser's security model, HTAs cannot be executed via HTTP, but must be downloaded (just like an <a href="/wiki/EXE" class="mw-redirect" title="EXE">EXE file</a>) and executed from local file system.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="HTML4_variations">HTML4 variations</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=24" title="Edit section: HTML4 variations">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Since its inception, HTML and its associated protocols gained acceptance relatively quickly.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Words_to_watch#Unsupported_attributions" title="Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch"><span title="The material near this tag may use weasel words or too-vague attribution. (March 2017)">by whom?</span></a></i>&#93;</sup> However, no clear standards existed in the early years of the language. Though its creators originally conceived of HTML as a semantic language devoid of presentation details,<sup id="cite_ref-91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">&#91;91&#93;</a></sup> practical uses pushed many presentational elements and attributes into the language, driven largely by the various browser vendors. The latest standards surrounding HTML reflect efforts to overcome the sometimes chaotic development of the language<sup id="cite_ref-92" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-92">&#91;92&#93;</a></sup> and to create a rational foundation for building both meaningful and well-presented documents. To return HTML to its role as a semantic language, the <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</a> has developed style languages such as <a href="/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets">CSS</a> and <a href="/wiki/XSL" title="XSL">XSL</a> to shoulder the burden of presentation. In conjunction, the HTML specification has slowly reined in the presentational elements.
</p><p>There are two axes differentiating various variations of HTML as currently specified: SGML-based HTML versus XML-based HTML (referred to as XHTML) on one axis, and strict versus transitional (loose) versus frameset on the other axis.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="SGML-based_versus_XML-based_HTML">SGML-based versus XML-based HTML</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=25" title="Edit section: SGML-based versus XML-based HTML">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>One difference in the latest HTML specifications lies in the distinction between the SGML-based specification and the XML-based specification. The XML-based specification is usually called <a href="/wiki/XHTML" title="XHTML">XHTML</a> to distinguish it clearly from the more traditional definition. However, the root element name continues to be "html" even in the XHTML-specified HTML. The W3C intended XHTML 1.0 to be identical to HTML 4.01 except where limitations of XML over the more complex SGML require workarounds. Because XHTML and HTML are closely related, they are sometimes documented in parallel. In such circumstances, some authors <a href="/wiki/(X)HTML" class="mw-redirect" title="(X)HTML">conflate the two names</a> as (X)HTML or X(HTML).
</p><p>Like HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 has three sub-specifications: strict, transitional and frameset.
</p><p>Aside from the different opening declarations for a document, the differences between an HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0 document—in each of the corresponding DTDs—are largely syntactic. The underlying syntax of HTML allows many shortcuts that XHTML does not, such as elements with optional opening or closing tags, and even empty elements which must not have an end tag. By contrast, XHTML requires all elements to have an opening tag and a closing tag. XHTML, however, also introduces a new shortcut: an XHTML tag may be opened and closed within the same tag, by including a slash before the end of the tag like this: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">/&gt;</span></code>. The introduction of this shorthand, which is not used in the SGML declaration for HTML 4.01, may confuse earlier software unfamiliar with this new convention. A fix for this is to include a space before closing the tag, as such: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span></code>.<sup id="cite_ref-93" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-93">&#91;93&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>To understand the subtle differences between HTML and XHTML, consider the transformation of a valid and well-formed XHTML 1.0 document that adheres to Appendix C (see below) into a valid HTML 4.01 document. To make this translation requires the following steps:
</p>
<ol><li><b>The language for an element should be specified with a <code>lang</code> attribute rather than the XHTML <code>xml:lang</code> attribute.</b> XHTML uses XML's built in language-defining functionality attribute.</li>
<li><b>Remove the XML namespace (<code>xmlns=URI</code>).</b> HTML has no facilities for namespaces.</li>
<li><b>Change the document type declaration</b> from XHTML 1.0 to HTML 4.01. (see <a href="#Document_type_declaration">DTD section</a> for further explanation).</li>
<li>If present, <b>remove the XML declaration.</b> (Typically this is: <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-xml" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="cp">&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;utf-8&quot;?&gt;</span></code>).</li>
<li><b>Ensure that the document's MIME type is set to <code>text/html</code>.</b> For both HTML and XHTML, this comes from the HTTP <code>Content-Type</code> header sent by the server.</li>
<li><b>Change the XML empty-element syntax to an HTML style empty element</b> (<code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span></code> to <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>).</li></ol>
<p>Those are the main changes necessary to translate a document from XHTML 1.0 to HTML 4.01. To translate from HTML to XHTML would also require the addition of any omitted opening or closing tags. Whether coding in HTML or XHTML it may just be best to always include the optional tags within an HTML document rather than remembering which tags can be omitted.
</p><p>A well-formed XHTML document adheres to all the syntax requirements of XML. A valid document adheres to the content specification for XHTML, which describes the document structure.
</p><p>The W3C recommends several conventions to ensure an easy migration between HTML and XHTML (see <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/#guidelines">HTML Compatibility Guidelines</a>). The following steps can be applied to XHTML 1.0 documents only:
</p>
<ul><li>Include both <code>xml:lang</code> and <code>lang</code> attributes on any elements assigning language.</li>
<li>Use the empty-element syntax only for elements specified as empty in HTML.</li>
<li>Include an extra space in empty-element tags: for example <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span></code> instead of <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">br</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>.</li>
<li>Include explicit close tags for elements that permit content but are left empty (for example, <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">div</span><span class="p">&gt;&lt;/</span><span class="nt">div</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code>, not <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">div</span> <span class="p">/&gt;</span></code>).</li>
<li>Omit the XML declaration.</li></ul>
<p>By carefully following the W3C's compatibility guidelines, a user agent should be able to interpret the document equally as HTML or XHTML. For documents that are XHTML 1.0 and have been made compatible in this way, the W3C permits them to be served either as HTML (with a <code>text/html</code> <a href="/wiki/MIME_type" class="mw-redirect" title="MIME type">MIME type</a>), or as XHTML (with an <code>application/xhtml+xml</code> or <code>application/xml</code> MIME type). When delivered as XHTML, browsers should use an XML parser, which adheres strictly to the XML specifications for parsing the document's contents.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Transitional_versus_strict">Transitional versus strict</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=26" title="Edit section: Transitional versus strict">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>HTML 4 defined three different versions of the language: Strict, Transitional (once called Loose) and Frameset. The Strict version is intended for new documents and is considered best practice, while the Transitional and Frameset versions were developed to make it easier to transition documents that conformed to older HTML specification or didn't conform to any specification to a version of HTML 4. The Transitional and Frameset versions allow for presentational markup, which is omitted in the Strict version. Instead, <a href="/wiki/Cascading_style_sheets" class="mw-redirect" title="Cascading style sheets">cascading style sheets</a> are encouraged to improve the presentation of HTML documents. Because XHTML 1 only defines an XML syntax for the language defined by HTML 4, the same differences apply to XHTML 1 as well.
</p><p>The Transitional version allows the following parts of the vocabulary, which are not included in the Strict version:
</p>
<ul><li><b>A looser content model</b>
<ul><li>Inline elements and plain text are allowed directly in: <code>body</code>, <code>blockquote</code>, <code>form</code>, <code>noscript</code> and <code>noframes</code></li></ul></li>
<li><b>Presentation related elements</b>
<ul><li>underline (<code>u</code>)(Deprecated. can confuse a visitor with a hyperlink.)</li>
<li>strike-through (<code>s</code>)</li>
<li><code>center</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.)</li>
<li><code>font</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.)</li>
<li><code>basefont</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.)</li></ul></li>
<li><b>Presentation related attributes</b>
<ul><li><code>background</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and <code>bgcolor</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attributes for <code>body</code> (required element according to the W3C.) element.</li>
<li><code>align</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attribute on <code>div</code>, <code>form</code>, paragraph (<code>p</code>) and heading (<code>h1</code>...<code>h6</code>) elements</li>
<li><code>align</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), <code>noshade</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), <code>size</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and <code>width</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attributes on <code>hr</code> element</li>
<li><code>align</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), <code>border</code>, <code>vspace</code> and <code>hspace</code> attributes on <code>img</code> and <code>object</code> (caution: the <code>object</code> element is only supported in Internet Explorer (from the major browsers)) elements</li>
<li><code>align</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attribute on <code>legend</code> and <code>caption</code> elements</li>
<li><code>align</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and <code>bgcolor</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) on <code>table</code> element</li>
<li><code>nowrap</code> (Obsolete), <code>bgcolor</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), <code>width</code>, <code>height</code> on <code>td</code> and <code>th</code> elements</li>
<li><code>bgcolor</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attribute on <code>tr</code> element</li>
<li><code>clear</code> (Obsolete) attribute on <code>br</code> element</li>
<li><code>compact</code> attribute on <code>dl</code>, <code>dir</code> and <code>menu</code> elements</li>
<li><code>type</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), <code>compact</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and <code>start</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attributes on <code>ol</code> and <code>ul</code> elements</li>
<li><code>type</code> and <code>value</code> attributes on <code>li</code> element</li>
<li><code>width</code> attribute on <code>pre</code> element</li></ul></li>
<li><b>Additional elements in Transitional specification</b>
<ul><li><code>menu</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) list (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended)</li>
<li><code>dir</code> (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) list (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended)</li>
<li><code>isindex</code> (Deprecated.) (element requires server-side support and is typically added to documents server-side, <code>form</code> and <code>input</code> elements can be used as a substitute)</li>
<li><code>applet</code> (Deprecated. use the <code>object</code> element instead.)</li></ul></li>
<li><b>The <code>language</code> (Obsolete) attribute on script element</b> (redundant with the <code>type</code> attribute).</li>
<li><b>Frame related entities</b>
<ul><li><code>iframe</code></li>
<li><code>noframes</code></li>
<li><code>target</code> (Deprecated in the <code>map</code>, <code>link</code> and <code>form</code> elements.) attribute on <code>a</code>, client-side image-map (<code>map</code>), <code>link</code>, <code>form</code> and <code>base</code> elements</li></ul></li></ul>
<p>The Frameset version includes everything in the Transitional version, as well as the <code>frameset</code> element (used instead of <code>body</code>) and the <code>frame</code> element.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Frameset_versus_transitional">Frameset versus transitional</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=27" title="Edit section: Frameset versus transitional">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In addition to the above transitional differences, the frameset specifications (whether XHTML 1.0 or HTML 4.01) specify a different content model, with <code>frameset</code> replacing <code>body</code>, that contains either <code>frame</code> elements, or optionally <code>noframes</code> with a <code>body</code>.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Summary_of_specification_versions">Summary of specification versions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=28" title="Edit section: Summary of specification versions">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>As this list demonstrates, the loose versions of the specification are maintained for legacy support. However, contrary to popular misconceptions, the move to XHTML does not imply a removal of this legacy support. Rather the X in XML stands for extensible and the W3C is modularizing the entire specification and opening it up to independent extensions. The primary achievement in the move from XHTML 1.0 to XHTML 1.1 is the modularization of the entire specification. The strict version of HTML is deployed in XHTML 1.1 through a set of modular extensions to the base XHTML 1.1 specification. Likewise, someone looking for the loose (transitional) or frameset specifications will find similar extended XHTML 1.1 support (much of it is contained in the legacy or frame modules). The modularization also allows for separate features to develop on their own timetable. So for example, XHTML 1.1 will allow quicker migration to emerging XML standards such as <a href="/wiki/MathML" title="MathML">MathML</a> (a presentational and semantic math language based on XML) and <a href="/wiki/XForms" title="XForms">XForms</a>—a new highly advanced web-form technology to replace the existing HTML forms.
</p><p>In summary, the HTML 4 specification primarily reined in all the various HTML implementations into a single clearly written specification based on SGML. XHTML 1.0, ported this specification, as is, to the new XML defined specification. Next, XHTML 1.1 takes advantage of the extensible nature of XML and modularizes the whole specification. XHTML 2.0 was intended to be the first step in adding new features to the specification in a standards-body-based approach.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="WHATWG_HTML_versus_HTML5">WHATWG HTML versus HTML5</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=29" title="Edit section: WHATWG HTML versus HTML5">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="#Transition_of_HTML_Publication_to_WHATWG"> §&#160;Transition_of_HTML_Publication_to_WHATWG</a></div>
<p>The HTML Living Standard, which is developed by WHATWG, is the official version, while W3C HTML5 is no longer separate from WHATWG.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="WYSIWYG_editors">WYSIWYG editors</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=30" title="Edit section: WYSIWYG editors">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>There are some <a href="/wiki/WYSIWYG" title="WYSIWYG">WYSIWYG</a> editors (What You See Is What You Get), in which the user lays out everything as it is to appear in the HTML document using a <a href="/wiki/Graphical_user_interface" title="Graphical user interface">graphical user interface</a> (GUI), often similar to <a href="/wiki/Word_processor" title="Word processor">word processors</a>. The editor renders the document rather than show the code, so authors do not require extensive knowledge of HTML.
</p><p>The WYSIWYG editing model has been criticized,<sup id="cite_ref-94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94">&#91;94&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-95" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-95">&#91;95&#93;</a></sup> primarily because of the low quality of the generated code; there are voices<sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Words_to_watch#Unsupported_attributions" title="Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch"><span title="The material near this tag possibly uses too-vague attribution or weasel words. (June 2020)">who?</span></a></i>&#93;</sup> advocating a change to the <a href="/wiki/WYSIWYM" title="WYSIWYM">WYSIWYM</a> model (What You See Is What You Mean).
</p><p>WYSIWYG editors remain a controversial topic because of their perceived flaws such as:
</p>
<ul><li>Relying mainly on layout as opposed to meaning, often using markup that does not convey the intended meaning but simply copies the layout.<sup id="cite_ref-96" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-96">&#91;96&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li>Often producing extremely verbose and redundant code that fails to make use of the cascading nature of HTML and <a href="/wiki/CSS" class="mw-redirect" title="CSS">CSS</a>.</li>
<li>Often producing ungrammatical markup, called <a href="/wiki/Tag_soup" title="Tag soup">tag soup</a> or semantically incorrect markup (such as <code class="mw-highlight mw-highlight-lang-html" id="" style="" dir="ltr"><span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">em</span><span class="p">&gt;</span></code> for italics).</li>
<li>As a great deal of the information in HTML documents is not in the layout, the model has been criticized for its "what you see is all you get"-nature.<sup id="cite_ref-97" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-97">&#91;97&#93;</a></sup></li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=31" title="Edit section: See also">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 20em; -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Breadcrumb_navigation" title="Breadcrumb navigation">Breadcrumb navigation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_HTML_parsers" title="Comparison of HTML parsers">Comparison of HTML parsers</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dynamic_web_page" title="Dynamic web page">Dynamic web page</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/HTML_character_references" class="mw-redirect" title="HTML character references">HTML character references</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_document_markup_languages" title="List of document markup languages">List of document markup languages</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_XML_and_HTML_character_entity_references" title="List of XML and HTML character entity references">List of XML and HTML character entity references</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Microdata_(HTML)" title="Microdata (HTML)">Microdata (HTML)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Microformat" title="Microformat">Microformat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Polyglot_markup" title="Polyglot markup">Polyglot markup</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Semantic_HTML" title="Semantic HTML">Semantic HTML</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/W3C_Markup_Validation_Service" title="W3C Markup Validation Service">W3C (X)HTML Validator</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Web_colors" title="Web colors">Web colors</a></li></ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=HTML&amp;action=edit&amp;section=32" title="Edit section: References">edit source</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
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</li>
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</li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Tim Berners-Lee, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Uses.html">"Design Issues"</a></span>
</li>
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<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBerners-Lee1991" class="citation web cs1">Berners-Lee, Tim (December 9, 1991). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-talk/1991NovDec/0020.html">"Re: SGML/HTML docs, X Browser (archived www-talk mailing list post)"</a>. <i>w3</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20071222060359/http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-talk/1991NovDec/0020.html">Archived</a> from the original on December 22, 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">June 16,</span> 2007</span>. <q>SGML is very general. HTML is a specific application of the SGML basic syntax applied to hypertext documents with simple structure.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=w3&amp;rft.atitle=Re%3A+SGML%2FHTML+docs%2C+X+Browser+%28archived+www-talk+mailing+list+post%29&amp;rft.date=1991-12-09&amp;rft.aulast=Berners-Lee&amp;rft.aufirst=Tim&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flists.w3.org%2FArchives%2FPublic%2Fwww-talk%2F1991NovDec%2F0020.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-html+-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-html+_11-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFRaggett,_Dave" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Dave_Raggett" title="Dave Raggett">Raggett, Dave</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/htmlplus_paper/htmlplus.html">"A Review of the HTML+ Document Format"</a>. <i>w3</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20000229205146/http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/htmlplus_paper/htmlplus.html">Archived</a> from the original on February 29, 2000<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">May 22,</span> 2020</span>. <q>The hypertext markup language HTML was developed as a simple non-proprietary delivery format for global hypertext. HTML+ is a set of modular extensions to HTML and has been developed in response to a growing understanding of the needs of information providers. These extensions include text flow around floating figures, fill-out forms, tables and mathematical equations.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=w3&amp;rft.atitle=A+Review+of+the+HTML%2B+Document+Format&amp;rft.au=Raggett%2C+Dave&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FMarkUp%2Fhtmlplus_paper%2Fhtmlplus.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBerners-LeeConnelly1995" class="citation web cs1">Berners-Lee, Tim; Connelly, Daniel (November 1995). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1866">"Hypertext Markup Language – 2.0"</a>. <i>ietf.org</i>. Internet Engineering Task Force. <a href="/wiki/RFC_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="RFC (identifier)">RFC</a>&#160;<span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1866">1866</a></span>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20100811072528/http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1866">Archived</a> from the original on August 11, 2010<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">December 1,</span> 2010</span>. <q>This document thus defines an HTML 2.0 (to distinguish it from the previous informal specifications). Future (generally upwardly compatible) versions of HTML with new features will be released with higher version numbers.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=ietf.org&amp;rft.atitle=Hypertext+Markup+Language+%E2%80%93+2.0&amp;rft.date=1995-11&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Ftools.ietf.org%2Fhtml%2Frfc1866&amp;rft.aulast=Berners-Lee&amp;rft.aufirst=Tim&amp;rft.au=Connelly%2C+Daniel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ftools.ietf.org%2Fhtml%2Frfc1866&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-raggett-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-raggett_13-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-raggett_13-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-raggett_13-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-raggett_13-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-raggett_13-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-raggett_13-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFRaggett1998" class="citation book cs1">Raggett, Dave (1998). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070809234115/https://www.w3.org/People/Raggett/book4/ch02.html"><i>Raggett on HTML 4</i></a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/People/Raggett/book4/ch02.html">the original</a> on August 9, 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">July 9,</span> 2007</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Raggett+on+HTML+4&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.aulast=Raggett&amp;rft.aufirst=Dave&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FPeople%2FRaggett%2Fbook4%2Fch02.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/2014/10/html5-rec.html.en">"HTML5 – Hypertext Markup Language – 5.0"</a>. Internet Engineering Task Force. 28 October 2014. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141028233921/https://www.w3.org/2014/10/html5-rec.html.en">Archived</a> from the original on October 28, 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 25,</span> 2014</span>. <q>This document recommends HTML 5.0 after completion.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML5+%E2%80%93+Hypertext+Markup+Language+%E2%80%93+5.0&amp;rft.pub=Internet+Engineering+Task+Force&amp;rft.date=2014-10-28&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2014%2F10%2Fhtml5-rec.html.en&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html32">"HTML 3.2 Reference Specification"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. January 14, 1997<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 16,</span> 2008</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+3.2+Reference+Specification&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=1997-01-14&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2FREC-html32&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/HTML-WG/">"IETF HTML WG"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">June 16,</span> 2007</span>. <q>Note: This working group is closed</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=IETF+HTML+WG&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FMarkUp%2FHTML-WG%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-engelfriet-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-engelfriet_17-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-engelfriet_17-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFArnoud_Engelfriet" class="citation web cs1">Arnoud Engelfriet. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://htmlhelp.com/reference/wilbur/intro.html">"Introduction to Wilbur"</a>. Web Design Group<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">June 16,</span> 2007</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Introduction+to+Wilbur&amp;rft.pub=Web+Design+Group&amp;rft.au=Arnoud+Engelfriet&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhtmlhelp.com%2Freference%2Fwilbur%2Fintro.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40-971218/">"HTML 4.0 Specification"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. December 18, 1997<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 16,</span> 2008</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+4.0+Specification&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=1997-12-18&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2FREC-html40-971218%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/html4/conform.html#h-4.2">"HTML 4 – 4 Conformance: requirements and recommendations"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">December 30,</span> 2009</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+4+%E2%80%93+4+Conformance%3A+requirements+and+recommendations&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2Fhtml4%2Fconform.html%23h-4.2&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-html40-19980424/">"HTML 4.0 Specification"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. April 24, 1998<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 16,</span> 2008</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+4.0+Specification&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=1998-04-24&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F1998%2FREC-html40-19980424%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/html401/">"HTML 4.01 Specification"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. December 24, 1999<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 16,</span> 2008</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+4.01+Specification&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=1999-12-24&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2Fhtml401%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-iso-html-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-iso-html_22-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-iso-html_22-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFISO2000" class="citation web cs1">ISO (2000). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=27688">"ISO/IEC 15445:2000 – Information technology – Document description and processing languages – HyperText Markup Language (HTML)"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">December 26,</span> 2009</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=ISO%2FIEC+15445%3A2000+%E2%80%93+Information+technology+%E2%80%93+Document+description+and+processing+languages+%E2%80%93+HyperText+Markup+Language+%28HTML%29&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.au=ISO&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iso.org%2Fiso%2Fiso_catalogue%2Fcatalogue_tc%2Fcatalogue_detail.htm%3Fcsnumber%3D27688&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.cs.tcd.ie/15445/15445.HTML">Cs.Tcd.Ie</a>. Cs.Tcd.Ie (2000-05-15). Retrieved on 2012-02-16.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2014/REC-html5-20141028/">"HTML5: A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. 28 October 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">31 October</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML5%3A+A+vocabulary+and+associated+APIs+for+HTML+and+XHTML&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2014-10-28&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2014%2FREC-html5-20141028%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation pressrelease cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/2014/10/html5-rec.html.en">"Open Web Platform Milestone Achieved with HTML5 Recommendation"</a> (Press release). World Wide Web Consortium. 28 October 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">31 October</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Open+Web+Platform+Milestone+Achieved+with+HTML5+Recommendation&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2014-10-28&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2014%2F10%2Fhtml5-rec.html.en&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2016/REC-html51-20161101/">"HTML 5.1"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. 1 November 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+5.1&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2016-11-01&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2016%2FREC-html51-20161101%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/blog/news/archives/5932">"HTML 5.1 is a W3C Recommendation"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. 1 November 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+5.1+is+a+W3C+Recommendation&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2016-11-01&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2Fblog%2Fnews%2Farchives%2F5932&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFPhilippe_le_Hegaret2016" class="citation web cs1">Philippe le Hegaret (17 November 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/blog/2016/11/html-5-1-is-the-gold-standard/">"HTML 5.1 is the gold standard"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 January</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+5.1+is+the+gold+standard&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2016-11-17&amp;rft.au=Philippe+le+Hegaret&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2Fblog%2F2016%2F11%2Fhtml-5-1-is-the-gold-standard%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/2017/REC-html52-20171214/">"HTML 5.2"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. 14 December 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 December</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+5.2&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2017-12-14&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2F2017%2FREC-html52-20171214%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/blog/news/archives/6696">"HTML 5.2 is now a W3C Recommendation"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. 14 December 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 December</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+5.2+is+now+a+W3C+Recommendation&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2017-12-14&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2Fblog%2Fnews%2Farchives%2F6696&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFCharles_McCathie_Nevile2017" class="citation web cs1">Charles McCathie Nevile (14 December 2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/blog/2017/12/html-5-2-is-done-html-5-3-is-coming/">"HTML 5.2 is done, HTML 5.3 is coming"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 December</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+5.2+is+done%2C+HTML+5.3+is+coming&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2017-12-14&amp;rft.au=Charles+McCathie+Nevile&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2Fblog%2F2017%2F12%2Fhtml-5-2-is-done-html-5-3-is-coming%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFConnolly1992" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Connolly, Daniel</a> (6 June 1992). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-talk/1992MayJun/0020.html">"MIME as a hypertext architecture"</a>. CERN<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 October</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=MIME+as+a+hypertext+architecture&amp;rft.pub=CERN&amp;rft.date=1992-06-06&amp;rft.aulast=Connolly&amp;rft.aufirst=Daniel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flists.w3.org%2FArchives%2FPublic%2Fwww-talk%2F1992MayJun%2F0020.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFConnolly1992" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Connolly, Daniel</a> (15 July 1992). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-talk/1992JulAug/0020.html">"HTML DTD enclosed"</a>. CERN<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 October</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+DTD+enclosed&amp;rft.pub=CERN&amp;rft.date=1992-07-15&amp;rft.aulast=Connolly&amp;rft.aufirst=Daniel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flists.w3.org%2FArchives%2FPublic%2Fwww-talk%2F1992JulAug%2F0020.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFConnolly1992" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Connolly, Daniel</a> (18 August 1992). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/cern.ch/w3.org/www/Frame/fminit2.0/html.dtd">"document type declaration subset for Hyper Text Markup Language as defined by the World Wide Web project"</a>. CERN<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 October</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=document+type+declaration+subset+for+Hyper+Text+Markup+Language+as+defined+by+the+World+Wide+Web+project&amp;rft.pub=CERN&amp;rft.date=1992-08-18&amp;rft.aulast=Connolly&amp;rft.aufirst=Daniel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flost-contact.mit.edu%2Fafs%2Fcern.ch%2Fw3.org%2Fwww%2FFrame%2Ffminit2.0%2Fhtml.dtd&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-html11-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-html11_35-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-html11_35-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFConnolly1992" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Connolly, Daniel</a> (24 November 1992). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/cern.ch/w3.org/www/MarkUp/Connolly/921125/archive.sh#html.dtd">"Document Type Definition for the Hyper Text Markup Language as used by the World Wide Web application"</a>. CERN<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 October</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Document+Type+Definition+for+the+Hyper+Text+Markup+Language+as+used+by+the+World+Wide+Web+application&amp;rft.pub=CERN&amp;rft.date=1992-11-24&amp;rft.aulast=Connolly&amp;rft.aufirst=Daniel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flost-contact.mit.edu%2Fafs%2Fcern.ch%2Fw3.org%2Fwww%2FMarkUp%2FConnolly%2F921125%2Farchive.sh%23html.dtd&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/> See section "Revision History"</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBerners-LeeConnolly1993" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Berners-Lee, Tim</a>; <a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Connolly, Daniel</a> (June 1993). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-iiir-html-00">"Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) Internet Draft version 1.1"</a>. IETF IIIR Working Group<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 September</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Hyper+Text+Markup+Language+%28HTML%29+Internet+Draft+version+1.1&amp;rft.pub=IETF+IIIR+Working+Group&amp;rft.date=1993-06&amp;rft.aulast=Berners-Lee&amp;rft.aufirst=Tim&amp;rft.au=Connolly%2C+Daniel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ftools.ietf.org%2Fhtml%2Fdraft-ietf-iiir-html-00&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-ietfiiir-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-ietfiiir_37-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBerners-LeeConnolly1993" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Berners-Lee, Tim</a>; <a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Connolly, Daniel</a> (June 1993). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/draft-ietf-iiir-html-01.txt">"Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Internet Draft version 1.2"</a>. IETF IIIR Working Group<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 September</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Hypertext+Markup+Language+%28HTML%29+Internet+Draft+version+1.2&amp;rft.pub=IETF+IIIR+Working+Group&amp;rft.date=1993-06&amp;rft.aulast=Berners-Lee&amp;rft.aufirst=Tim&amp;rft.au=Connolly%2C+Daniel&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FMarkUp%2Fdraft-ietf-iiir-html-01.txt&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-raggett-www-html/history/">"History for draft-raggett-www-html-00"</a>. <i>datatracker.ietf.org</i>. 1993-11-08<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-11-18</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=datatracker.ietf.org&amp;rft.atitle=History+for+draft-raggett-www-html-00&amp;rft.date=1993-11-08&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fdatatracker.ietf.org%2Fdoc%2Fdraft-raggett-www-html%2Fhistory%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBerners-LeeConnolly1994" class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee" title="Tim Berners-Lee">Berners-Lee, Tim</a>; <a href="/wiki/Dan_Connolly_(computer_scientist)" title="Dan Connolly (computer scientist)">Connolly, Daniel</a> (28 November 1994). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-html-spec-00">"HyperText Markup Language Specification – 2.0 INTERNET DRAFT"</a>. IETF<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">24 October</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HyperText+Markup+Language+Specification+%E2%80%93+2.0+INTERNET+DRAFT&amp;rft.pub=IETF&amp;rft.date=1994-11-28&amp;rft.aulast=Berners-Lee&amp;rft.aufirst=Tim&amp;rft.au=Connolly%2C+Daniel&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ftools.ietf.org%2Fhtml%2Fdraft-ietf-html-spec-00&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFConnolly_1995" class="citation web cs1">Connolly &lt;connolly@w3.org&gt;, Daniel W. (1995-05-16). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-html-spec-02#section-1.1">"Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0"</a>. <i>tools.ietf.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-11-18</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=tools.ietf.org&amp;rft.atitle=Hypertext+Markup+Language+-+2.0&amp;rft.date=1995-05-16&amp;rft.aulast=Connolly+%3Cconnolly%40w3.org%3E&amp;rft.aufirst=Daniel+W.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Ftools.ietf.org%2Fhtml%2Fdraft-ietf-html-spec-02%23section-1.1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/rfc1866/history/">"History for draft-ietf-html-spec-05"</a>. <i>datatracker.ietf.org</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-11-18</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=datatracker.ietf.org&amp;rft.atitle=History+for+draft-ietf-html-spec-05&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fdatatracker.ietf.org%2Fdoc%2Frfc1866%2Fhistory%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/html3/">"HTML 3.0 Draft (Expired!) Materials"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. December 21, 1995<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 16,</span> 2008</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML+3.0+Draft+%28Expired%21%29+Materials&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=1995-12-21&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FMarkUp%2Fhtml3%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-html30cover-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-html30cover_43-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-html30cover_43-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/html3/CoverPage">"HyperText Markup Language Specification Version 3.0"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">June 16,</span> 2007</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HyperText+Markup+Language+Specification+Version+3.0&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FMarkUp%2Fhtml3%2FCoverPage&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFRaggett1995" class="citation web cs1">Raggett, Dave (28 March 1995). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/People/Raggett/html3/html3.txt">"HyperText Markup Language Specification Version 3.0"</a>. <i>HTML 3.0 Internet Draft Expires in six months</i>. <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium">World Wide Web Consortium</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 June</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=HTML+3.0+Internet+Draft+Expires+in+six+months&amp;rft.atitle=HyperText+Markup+Language+Specification+Version+3.0&amp;rft.date=1995-03-28&amp;rft.aulast=Raggett&amp;rft.aufirst=Dave&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FPeople%2FRaggett%2Fhtml3%2Fhtml3.txt&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBowers" class="citation journal cs1">Bowers, Neil. "Weblint: Just Another Perl Hack". <a href="/wiki/CiteSeerX_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="CiteSeerX (identifier)">CiteSeerX</a>&#160;<span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.54.7191">10.1.1.54.7191</a></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Weblint%3A+Just+Another+Perl+Hack&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.54.7191&amp;rft.aulast=Bowers&amp;rft.aufirst=Neil&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">&#124;journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFLieBos1997" class="citation book cs1"><a href="/wiki/H%C3%A5kon_Wium_Lie" title="Håkon Wium Lie">Lie, Håkon Wium</a>; <a href="/wiki/Bert_Bos" title="Bert Bos">Bos, Bert</a> (April 1997). <span class="cs1-lock-registration" title="Free registration required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/cascadingstylesh00lieh"><i>Cascading style sheets: designing for the Web</i></a></span>. Addison Wesley Longman. p.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/cascadingstylesh00lieh/page/263">263</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">9 June</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Cascading+style+sheets%3A+designing+for+the+Web&amp;rft.pages=263&amp;rft.pub=Addison+Wesley+Longman&amp;rft.date=1997-04&amp;rft.aulast=Lie&amp;rft.aufirst=H%C3%A5kon+Wium&amp;rft.au=Bos%2C+Bert&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fcascadingstylesh00lieh&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.w3.org/TR/html5/">"HTML5"</a>. World Wide Web Consortium. June 10, 2008<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 16,</span> 2008</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=HTML5&amp;rft.pub=World+Wide+Web+Consortium&amp;rft.date=2008-06-10&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2FTR%2Fhtml5%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHTML" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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